Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on Answer Sheet 1 (10 points)
Individuals and businesses have legal protection for intellectual property they create and own. Intellectual property _1_from creative thinking and may include products, _2_, processes, and ideas. Intellectual property is protected _3_ misappropriation (盜用) Misappropriation is taking the intellectual property of others without _4_ compensation and using it for monetary gain.
Legal protection is provided for the _5_ of intellectual property. The three common types of legal protection are patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
Patents provide exclusive use of inventions. If the U.S. Patent Office _6_ a patent, it is confirming that the intellectual property is _7_. The patent prevents others from making, using, or selling the invention without the owner’s _8_ for a period of 20 years.
Copyright are similar to patents _9_ that they are applied to artistic works. A copyright protects the creator of an _10_ artistic or intellectual work, such as a song or a novel. A copyright gives the owner exclusive rights to copy, _11_, display, or perform the work. The copyright prevents others from using and selling the work. The _12_ of a copyright is typically the lifetime of the author _13_ an additional 70 years.
Trademarks are words, names, or symbols that identify the manufacturer of a product and _14_ it from similar goods of others. A servicemark is similar to a trademark _15_ is used to identify service. A trademark prevents others from using the _16_ or a similar word, name, or symbol to take advantage of the recognition and _17_ of the brand or to create confusion in the marketplace. _18_ registration, a trademark is usually granted for a period of ten years. It can be _19_ for additional ten-year periods indefinitely as _20_ as the mark’s use continues.
1. A. retrieves B. deviates C. results D. departs
2. A. services B. reserves C. assumptions D. motions
3. A. for B. with C. by D. from
4. A. sound B. partial C. due D. random
5. A. users B. owners C. masters D. executives
6. A. affords B. affiliates C. funds D. grants
7. A. solemn B. sober C. unique D. universal
8. A. perspective B. permission C. conformity D. consensus
9. A. except B. besides C. beyond D. despite
10. A. absolute B. alternative C. original D. orthodox
11. A. presume B. stimulate C. nominate D. distribute
12. A. range B. length C. scale D. extent
13. A. plus B. versus C. via D. until
14. A. distract B. differ C. distinguish D. disconnect
15. A. or B. but C. so D. whereas
16. A. identical B. analogical C. literal D. parallel
17. A. ambiguity B. utility C. popularity D. proximity
18. A. From B. Over C. Before D. Upon
19. A. recurred B. renewed C. recalled D. recovered
20. A. long B. soon C. far D. well
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1 (40 points)
Within a large concrete room, cut out of a mountain on a freezing-told island just 1,000 kilometers from the North Pole, could lie the future of humanity.
The room is a vault (地下庫) designed to hold around 2 million seeds, representing all known varieties of the world’s crops. It is being built to safeguard the world’s food supply against nuclear war, climate change, terrorism, rising sea levels, earthquakes and the collapse of electricity supplies. “If the worst came to the worst, this would allow the world to reconstruct agriculture on this planet.” says Cary Fowler, director of the Global Crop Diversity Trust, an independent international organization promoting the project.
The Norwegian (挪威的) government is planning to create the seed bank next year at the request of crop scientists. The $3 million vault will be built deep inside a sandstone mountain on the Norwegian Arctic island of Spitsbergen. The vault will have metre-thick walls of reinforced concrete and will be protected behind two airlocks and high-security doors.
The vault’s seed collection will represent the products of some 10,000 years of plant breeding by the world’s famers. Though most are no longer widely planted, the varieties contain vital genetic properties still regularly used in plant breeding.
To survive, the seeds need freezing temperatures. Operators plan to replace the air inside the
vault each winter, when temperatures in Spitsbergen are around -18℃. But even if some disaster meant that the vault was abandoned, the permanently frozen soil would keep the seeds alive. And even accelerated global warming would take many decades to penetrate the mountain vault.
“This will be the world’s most secure gene bank,” says Fowler. “But its seeds will only be used when all other samples have gone for some reason.”
The project comes at a time when there is growing concern about the safety of existing seed banks around the world. Many have been criticized for poor security, ageing refrigeration (冷藏) systems and vulnerable electricity supplies.
The scheme won UN approval at a meeting of the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome in October 2005. A feasibility study said the facility “would essentially be built to last forever”.
21. The Norwegian vault is important in that _________________.
A. the seeds in it represent the rarest varieties of world’s crops.
B. the seeds in it could revive agriculture if the worst thing should happen
C. it is built deep in a mountain on a freezing-cold Arctic island
D. it is strong enough against all disasters caused by man and nature
22. The seed bank project was proposed by __________.
A. the Norwegian government B. Norwegian farmers
C. Spitsbergen residents D. agricultural scientists
23. The seeds in the vault will be stored ____________________.
A. as samples of world crop varieties
B. as products of world plant breeding
C. for their valuable genetic properties
D. for their resistance to plant diseases
24. For the seed bank project to be successful, the most important factor is probably________.
A. constructing tight airlocks B. maintaining high security
C. keeping freezing temperatures D. storing large quantities of seeds
25. Which of the following statements is true?
A. The Norwegian vault models after existing seed banks
B. The Spitsbergen seed bank is expected to last 10,000 years
C. The existing seed banks have potential problems
D. The UN financed the Spitsbergen seed bank
Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution. The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments and communications, making possible a fundamental transformation in the production and distribution of goods.
In agriculture, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators, the cotton presses, the warehouses, and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the nation’s farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy against them. In manufacturing, the transformation was marked by the emergence of a “new factory system” in which plants became larger, more complex, and more systematically organized and managed. And in distribution, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the jobber, the wholesaler, and the mass retailer. These changes radically altered the nature of work during the half century between 1870 and 1920.
To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. There were the sweatshops in city tenements, where groups of men and women in household settings manufactured clothing or cigars on a piecework basis. And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building. But as the number of wage earners in manufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920, the number of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as did the size of the average plant. (The Baldwin Works had 600 employees in 1855, 3,000 in 1875, and 8,000 in 1900.) By 1920, at least in the northeastern United States where most of the nation’s manufacturing wage earners were concentrated, three-quarters of those worked in factories with more than 100 employees and 30 percent worked in factories with more than 1,000 employees.
26. What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?
A. New technological developments had little effect on farmers.
B. The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.
C. Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.
D. Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.
27. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as part of the “new factory system?”
A. A change in the organization of factories.
B. A growth in the complexity of factories.
C. An increase in the size of factories.
D. An increase in the cost of manufacturing industrial products.
28. Which of the following statements about manufacturing before 1870 can be inferred from the passage?
A. Most manufacturing activity was highly organized.
B. Most manufacturing occurred in relatively small plants.
C. The most commonly manufactured goods were cotton presses.
D. Manufacturing and agriculture each made up about half of the nation’s economy.
29. The author mentions the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Paragraph 3 because it was
A. a well-known metal-works
B. the first plant of its kind in Philadelphia
C. typical of the large factories that were becoming more common
D. typical of factories that consisted of a single building
30. The word “presided over” in Paragraph 3 are closest in meaning to
A. managed B. led to
C. worked in D. produced
In 1985 when a Japan Air Lines (JAL) jet crashed, its president, Yasumoto Takagi, called each victim’s family to apologize, and then promptly resigned. And in 1987, when a subsidiary of Toshiba sold sensitive military technology to the former Soviet Union, the chairman of Toshiba gave up his post.
These executive actions, which Toshiba calls “the highest form of apology,” may seem bizarre to US managers. No one at Boeing resigned after the JAL crash, which may have been caused by a faulty Boeing repair.
The difference between the two business cultures centers around different definitions of delegation. While US executives give both responsibility and authority to their employees, Japanese executives delegate only authority—the responsibility is still theirs. Although the subsidiary that sold the sensitive technology to the Soviets had its own management, the Toshiba top executives said they “must take personal responsibility for not creating an atmosphere throughout the Toshiba group that would make such activity unthinkable, even in an independently run subsidiary.”
Such acceptance of community responsibility is not unique to businesses in Japan. School principals in Japan have resigned when their students committed major crimes after school hours. Even if they do not quit, Japanese executives will often accept primary responsibility in other ways, such as taking the first pay cut when a company gets into financial trouble. Such personal sacrifices, even if they are largely symbolic, help to create the sense of community and employee loyalty that is crucial to the Japanese way of doing business.
Harvard Business School professor George Lodge calls the ritual acceptance of blame “almost a feudal (封建的) way of purging (清除) the community of dishonor,” and to some in the United States, such resignations look cowardly. However, in an era in which both business and governmental leaders seem particularly good at evading responsibility, many US managers would probably welcome an infusion (灌輸) of the Japanese sense of responsibility, If, for instance, US automobile company executives offered to reduce their own salaries before they asked their workers to take pay cuts, negotiations would probably take on a very different character.
31. Why did the chairman of Toshiba resign his position in 1987?
A. In Japan, the leakage of a state secret to Russians is a grave crime.
B. He had been under attack for shifting responsibility to his subordinates.
C. In Japan, the chief executive of a corporation is held responsible for the mistake made by its subsidiaries.
D. He had been accused of being cowardly towards crises that were taking place in his corporation.
32. According to the passage if you want to be a good manager in Japan, you have to ________.
A. apologize promptly for your subordinates' mistakes
B. be skillful in accepting blames from customers
C. make symbolic sacrifices whenever necessary
D. create a strong sense of company loyalty
33. What’s Professor George Lodge’s attitude towards the resignations of Japanese corporate leaders?
A. sympatheticB. biased C. critical D. approving.
34. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. Boeing had nothing to do with the JAL air crash in 1985.
B. American executives consider authority and responsibility inseparable.
C. School principals bear legal responsibility for students' crimes.
D. Persuading employees to take pay cuts doesn’t help solve corporate crises.
35. The passage is mainly about ______________.
A. resignation as an effective way of dealing with business crises
B. the importance of delegating responsibility to employees
C. ways of evading responsibility in times of crises
D. the difference between two business cultures
The end of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century were marked by the development of an international Art Nouveau style, characterized by sinuous lines, floral and vegetable motifs, and soft evanescent coloration. The Art Nouveau style was an eclectic one, bringing together elements of Japanese art, motifs of ancient cultures, and natural forms. The glass objects of this style were elegant in outline, although often deliberately distorted, with pale or iridescent surfaces. A favored device of the style was to imitate the iridescent surface seen on ancient glass that had been buried. Much of the Art Nouveau glass produced during the years of its greatest popularity had been generically termed “art glass.” Art glass was intended for decorative purposes and relied for its effect upon carefully chosen color combinations and innovative techniques.
France produced a number of outstanding exponents of the Art Nouveau style; among the most celebrated was Emile Galle (1846-1904). In the United States, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized today. Tiffany was a brilliant designer, successfully combining ancient Egyptian, Japanese, and Persian motifs.
The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915, although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920’s. It was eventually to be overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since the turn of the century. At first restricted to a small avant-garde group of architects and designers, Functionalism emerged as the dominant influence upon designers after the First World War. The basic tenet of the movement—that function should determine form—was not a new concept. Soon a distinct aesthetic code evolved: form should be simple, surfaces plain, and any ornament should be based on geometric relationships. This new design concept, coupled with the sharp postwar reactions to the styles and conventions of the preceding decades, created an entirely new public taste which caused Art Nouveau types of glass to fall out of favor. The new taste demanded dramatic effects of contrast, stark outline, and complex textural surfaces.
36. What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?
A. Design elements in the Art Nouveau style
B. The popularity of the Art Nouveau style
C. Production techniques for art glass
D. Color combinations typical of the Art Nouveau style
37. What is the main purpose of paragraph 2?
A. To compare different Art Nouveau styles
B. To give examples of famous Art Nouveau artists
C. To explain why Art Nouveau glass was so popular in the United States
D. To show the impact Art Nouveau had on other cultures around the world
38. What does the author mean by stating that “function should determine form” (para 3, line 6)?
A. A useful object should not be attractive
B. The purpose of an object should influence its form
C. The design of an object is considered more significant than its function
D. The form of an object should not include decorative elements
39. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason Functionalism became popular was that it
A. clearly distinguished between art and design
B. appealed to people who liked complex painted designs
C. reflected a common desire to break from the past
D. was easily interpreted by the general public
40. Paragraph 3 supports which of the following statements about Functionalism?
A. Its design concept avoided geometric shapes.
B. It started on a small scale and then spread gradually.
C. It was a major force in the decorative arts before the First World War
D. It was not attractive to architects and designers
Directions: Read the following text and then answer the questions by finding a subtitle for each of the marked parts or paragraphs. There are two extra items in the subtitle. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1 (10 points)
Growth in the market for glass crafts
Historical development of glass
Architectural experiments with glass
A former glass technology
Computers and their dependence on glass
What makes glass so adaptable
Exciting innovations in fiber optics
Glass, in one form or another, has long been in noble service to humans. As one of the most widely used of manufactured materials, and certainly the most versatile, it can be as imposing as a telescope mirror the width of a tennis court or as small and simple as a marble rolling across dirt. The uses of this adaptable material have been broadened dramatically by new technologies: glass fiber optics—more than eight million miles—carrying telephone and television signals across nations; glass ceramics serving as the nose cones of missiles and as crowns for teeth; tiny glass beads taking radiation doses inside the body to specific organs; even a new type of glass fashioned of nuclear waste in order to dispose of that unwanted material.
On the horizon are optical computers. These could store programs and process information by means of light—pulses from tiny lasers—rather than electrons. And the pulses would travel over glass fibers, not copper wire. These machines could function hundreds of times faster than today’s electronic computers and hold vastly more information. Today fiber optics are used to obtain a cleaner image of smaller and smaller objects than ever before—even bacterial viruses. A new generation of optical instruments is emerging that can provide detailed imaging of the inner workings of cells. It is the surge in fiber optic use and in liquid crystal displays that has set the U.S. glass industry (a 16 billion dollar business employing some 150,000 workers) to building new plants to meet demand.
But it is not only in technology and commerce that glass has widened its horizons. The use of glass as art, a tradition going back at least to Roman times, is also booming. Nearly everywhere, it seems, men and women are blowing glass and creating works of art. “I didn’t sell a piece of glass until 1975,” Dale Chihuly said, smiling, for in the 18 years since the end of the dry spell, he has become one of the 20th century. He now has a new commission—a glass sculpture for the headquarters building of a pizza company—for which his fee is half a million dollars.
But not all the glass technology that touches our lives is ultra-modern. Consider the simple light bulb; at the turn of the century most light bulbs were hand blown, and the cost of one was equivalent to half a day’s pay for the average worker. In effect, the invention of the ribbon machine by Corning in the 1920s lighted a nation. The price of a bulb plunged. Small wonder that the machine has been called one of the great mechanical achievements of all time. Yet it is very simple: a narrow ribbon of molten glass travels over a moving belt of steel in which there are holes. The glass sags through the holes and into waiting moulds. Puffs of compressed air then shape the glass. In this way, the envelope of a light bulb is made by a single machine at the rate of 66,000 an hour, as compared with 1,200 a day produced by a team of four glassblowers.
The secret of the versatility of glass lies in its interior structure. Although it is rigid, and thus like a solid, the atoms are arranged in a random disordered fashion, characteristic of a liquid. In the melting process, the atoms in the raw materials are distributed from their normal positioning the molecular structure; before they can find their way back to crystalline arrangements the glass cools. This looseness in molecular structure gives the material what engineers call tremendous “formability” which allows technicians to tailor glass to whatever they need.
Today, scientists continue to experiment with new glass mixture and building designers test their imaginations with applications of special types of glass. A London architect, Mike Davies, sees even more dramatic buildings using molecular chemistry. “Glass is the great building material of the future, the ‘dynamic skin’ ” he said. “Think of glass that has been treated to react to electric currents going through it, glass that will change from clear to opaque at the push of a button, that gives you instant curtains. Think of how the tall buildings in New York could perform a symphony of colors as the glass in them is made to change colors instantly.” Glass as instant curtains is available now, but the cost is exorbitant. As for the glass changing colors instantly, that may come true. Mike Davies’s vision may indeed be on the way to fulfillment.
Section III Translation
46. Directions: In this section there is a passage in English. Translate it into Chinese and write your version on Answer Sheet 2 (15 points)
The media can impact current events. As a graduate student at Berkeley in the 1960s, I remember experiencing the events related to the People’s Park that were occurring on campus. Some of these events were given national media coverage in the press and on TV. I found it interesting to compare my impressions of what was going on with perceptions obtained from the news media. I could begin to see events of that time feed on news coverage. This also provided me with some healthy insights into the distinction between these realities.
Electronic media are having a greater impact on the people’s lives every day. People gather more and more of their impressions from representations. Television and telephone communications are linking people to a global village, or what one writer calls the electronic city. Consider the information that television brings into your home every day. Consider also the contact you have with others simply by using telephone. These media extend your consciousness and your contact, for example, the video coverage of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake focused on “live action” such as the fires or the rescue efforts. This gave the viewer the impression of total disaster. Television coverage of the Iraqi War also developed an immediacy. CNN reported events as they happened. This coverage was distributed worldwide. Although most people were far away from these events, they developed some perception of these realities.
Section IV Writing
47. Directions: Read the following Chinese and write an abstract of 80-100 words. You should write your abstract on Answer Sheet 2. (10 points)
Directions: In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following statement. You should write at least 150 words on the Answer Sheet 2. (15 points)
My Comment on Students’ Dealing in Stock Market
1-5 ACBDD；6-10 BACCA；11-15 DBACA；16-20 CDACD
A Letter to Liming
Congraduate on you success in passing the entrance examination.
Now, please allow me to give you some suggestion during your holidays.
First of all, you should read. Because it makes a full man. Reading during the holiday helps you get the habit of it that when you become a freshman. College life is so plentiful but reading is the most important thing.
Second, to do some housework can bring you another feelings. Once you get into the college, you must do the things for yourself, including washing, clear the room and shedule your daily life and etc.
However, reading and housework doesn’t mean all of your holiday. You need contact with your friends or communicate with them. The reason is that old friends will be in your memory and new friends will be there. And we all know that the friendship among senior school.
From the things I mentioned above, hope they will bring you a richful life in your college.
As can be seen clearly from the chart, the market share taken by domestic car brands increased rapidly from 25% in 20008 to nearly 35% in 2009, while conversely, the market share owned by Japanese car brands dropped by 10% from 35% in 2008 to 25% in 2008. What’s more, the market share taken by American car brands is on the upward trend, from 10% to nearly 15%.
Three reasons, in my opinion, can account for the changes in car market in these two years. First, the rise of Chinese cars is of little surprise as we have seen Chinese enterprises’ commitment to developing self-owned technologies, which not only free them from potential risks, but also bring about long-term benefit. Second, Japanese cars, which used to be highly praised for their outstanding quality and superior stability, is now reeling from a crisis of confidence. Last, the improvement of American cars’ performance must be attributed to the smart marketing strategy employed by American sellers. They launched a lot of marketing campaigns designed specially for Chinese market, which won them applaud as well as benefit.
In order to maintain the good momentum of development, domestic cars should on one hand stick to their self-independent policy, and on the other, learn some experiences from Japanese car’s failures and Americans’ success.